URBAN GROUNDWATER POLLUTION IN THE DUHOK CITY ( NORTH IRAQ )
Ramadhan H. Mohammed
Last modified: 2010-09-21
Environmental geology is related to the all aspects of interactions between humans, ecosystems and the earth. Coverage includes water and soil contamination; geological processes affecting bio systems and people; remediation of man-made or geological hazards; environmental problems associated with mining and abstraction activities for industrial minerals, water and energy; impacts of hazardous facilities and activities; land use management; management of environmental data and information in data banks and information systems. This paper is case study is about the water and soil contamination in Duhok city, north Iraq.
Quality of water is one of the important factor that effect on public health, especially when this water is used for drinking and irrigation of rural and urban agriculture purpose, so in this paper quality of raw water that provided the water supply network of Duhok governorate for three locations are tested and analyzed, test result show that in generally the raw water from the sources (Duhok dam reservoir, well and Mosul dam reservoir) has parameters greater than the desirable range but not exceeding the maximum permissible range for drinking water parameters. The test result also show that the concentrations of hardness, alkalinity and sulfa teare the major problem, which is due to the high concentration of calcium and magnesium in geological formations. Spring which supplied Baroshki location found to be contaminated bacterially and the parameters of Qasara well water found to be close or at maximum permissible ranges, so the well water alone can not be used unless a good mixing process carried out with Jam Barakat supplied water in order to decrease the concentration of the parameters.
Using of waste water in irrigation of rural and urban agricultural purposes in the city of Duhok was also investigated. Test result show that there are high degree of bacterial contamination which effects human and animals life, especially when the crops eaten raw or cooked, so primary treatment is adopted. Investigation on the effect of waste water on soil properties was investigated; from test result it was clearly noted that the soil become less permeable and the sodium absorption ratio with sodium percentage rises from 2 to 100 times in soil solution and high degree of bacterial contamination was also noted. Keywords: Environmental geology, Duhok dam, Waste water, raw sewage, aquifers.